© 2000, Annual Reports of the Zoological Institute RAS.
Vladimir M. Gnezdilov
Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Universitetskaya nab., 1, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia
A number of works are devoted to the study of biotope distribution of Cicadina. There are at least two approaches to resolution of the problem. On the one hand this is revealing of habitat and landscape distribution of species (Emeljanov, 1969; Anufriev & Kirillova, 1998). On the other hand this is ascertainment of fauna of individual plant formations and associations (Günthart, 1987; Holzinger, 1996). In the present case the species composition (faunal complex) of Cicadina of the main plant formations of North-West Caucasus (Krasnodar Territory mainly) is discussed. My own material on Cicadina, which was collected during 1996-1999, the collection of Zoological Institute of RAS and the material, which was given by my colleagues provided the basis for the present study. The species, which were found in communities of one type of plant formations are regarded as stenotopic ones, the species which were found in communities of several types of plant formations - as eurytopic ones.
Alpine meadows - 18 species. All species occur also in communities of other plant formations. In this complex proper high-mountain species, which do not occur outside the alpine and subalpine meadow are distinguished: Chlorita alticola Logv. (Caucasian endemic species) is found at an altitude of 2000-2170 m above sea level; Forcipata flava Vid. is found at an altitude of 1750-2170 m. The following species are found also in communities of low-mountain meadows: Dicranotropis divergens Kbm.; Planaphrodes monticola (Logv.); Eupteryx assectator Logv.; Aconurella prolixa (Leth.). Broad oligophages of Poaceae prevail among species with known host-plant specialization. European species with a notable share of Caucasian endemics predominate in general chorological spectrum (GCS).
Subalpine meadows - 63 species. Among stenotopic species: Macrosteles alpinus (Zett.) - on wet sedge meadow with Carex transcaucasica Egor., C. echinata Murr., C. orbicularis kotechyana (Boiss. et Hohen.) Kukkonen; Diplocolenus caucasicus Em.; D. intermedius Em. In typical species of forests and subalpine and alpine formations: Stiroma bicarinata (H.-S.); Xanthodelphax stramineus (Stål); Cercopis intermedia Kbm., etc. Broad oligophages of Poaceae and broad polyphages prevail among species with known host-plant specialization. European, Palaearctic species and species with interkingdom distribution predominate in GCS.
Subalpine open woodland and crook-stem forests - 11 species, among these: Oncopsis tristis (Zett.); Eurhadina ribauti Wagn.; Edwardsiana frustrator (Edw.); Kybos ludus (Dav. et DeL.). This complex includes oligophages of Betulaceae, Aceraceae, Salixaceae, Fagaceae, narrow polyphages of Betulaceae and Salixaceae. Palaearctic and European species predominate in GCS.
Fir-beech forests - 44 species. In stenotopic species - Aguriahana germari (Zett.). Among species, which were found also in alpine and subalpine meadows - Euscelis caucasicus Em. Among species, which were found in forest communities of other formations: Dicranotropis hamata (Boh.); Fagocyba cruenta (H.-S.); Speudotettix subfusculus (Fall.); Thamnotettix confinis Zett. The fir-beech forest complex includes narrow oligophages of Pinus, Salix, Carex, broad oligophages of Poaceae and polyphages. European and Palaearctic species predominate in GCS.
Chestnut forests - 58 species, among these: Cixius admirabilis Logv.; Thamnotettix dilutior Kbm. on Poaceae; Ribautiana tenerrima on Rubus hirtus Waldst. et Kit. (sensu lato). European, Tethyan and Palaearctic species predominate in GCS.
Oak-hornbeam forests - 142 species, among these: Alebra albostriella (Fall.); Edwardsiana spinigera (Edw.); Fieberiella septentrionalis Wagn.; Mocydiopsis longicauda Rem.; Allygidius atomarius (F.); A. commutatus (Fieb.); Mycterodus ovifrons Put.; Issus pospisili Dlab.; Cixius rufus Logv.; Anoplotettix loewi (Horv.). The complex includes narrow oligophages of Quercus, Acer, Corylus, Betula, Hippophaë, Populus, Salix, Urtica, Carex, broad oligophages of Poaceae and polyphages. European and Palaearctic species predominate in GCS.
Submediterranean forests - 95 species. In stenotopic group: Mycterodus rostratulus Em.; Bubastia taurica (Kusn.); Dictyophara multireticulata (M., R.); Cicadatra persica Kirk.; Hespericerus brusinae (Horv.); Planaphrodes angulaticeps (Em.); Liguropia juniperi (Leth.); Fieberiella lugubris Em. Perhaps, strict association of the major portion of the stenotopic species with submediterranean communities is caused by the semiarid character of the latter. Among species, which were found also in communities of steppe meadows - Proceps acicularis (M.et R.) on Melica taurica C. Koch. Among eurytope species oligophages of Poaceae and polyphages. Tethyan species predominate in GCS.
Flood-land forests - 63 species. In stenotope group: Myndus musivus (Germ.); Cedusa sarmatica (Anufr.); Idiocerus lituratus (Fall.); I. vicinus Mel., etc. In this complex oligophages of Salixaceae dominate. Among species, which were found also in forest communities of other formations: Phlogotettix cyclops (M.,R.); Mocydiopsis monticola Rem.; Japananus hyalinus (Osb.). West-Palaearctic, Palaearctic and European species predominate in GCS.
Foot-hill and low-mountain meadow steppe and steppe meadow- 116 species. In stenotope group: Enantiocephalus cornutus (H.-S.); Aphelonema punctifrons (Horv.); Alloscelis vittifrons (Iv.); Planaphrodes laeva (Rey); Mendrausus pauxillus (Fieb.); Rhoananus hypochlorus (Fieb.); Pleargus pygmeus (Horv.), etc. The complex includes narrow oligophages of Cleistogenes, Festuca, Elytrigia, Poa, Artemisia, Carex, Verbascum. A considerable number of oligophages of Poaceae are presented among eurytope species. Tethyan and Palaearctic species predominate in GCS.
Solonez-solonchak communities - 64 species. In stenotope group: Macropsidius serratus Logv. on wormwood of subgenus Seriphidium; Anoterostemma ivanoffi (Leth.) on Juncus gerardii Lois.; Aconura jakowlefi and Psammotettix salsuginosus Logv. on Aeluropus littoralis (Gouan) Parl.; Macrosteles salsolae (Put.) on Salicornia europaea L.; Aglena ornata (H.-S.), Paramesus major Hpt. and Paraglena paludosa Rib. on Bolbosñhoenus maritimus (L.) Palla. The complex includes also narrow oligophages of Phragmites, Puccinellia, and Limonium. Tethyan species predominate in GCS.
Herb-bunch-grass steppe - 23 species, among these: Pentastiridius nanus (Iv.); Caliscelis affinis (Fieb.); Laburrus handlirschi (Mats.); Artianus manderstjernii (Kbm.); Praganus hofferi (Dlab.). Oligophages of Poaceae prevail among species with known host-plant specialization. Tethyan species predominate in GCS.
Comparison of faunal complexes using Sørensen index reveals several clusters. Cluster A unites alpine and subalpine complexes (resemblance ca 44.5%). Cluster B unites fir-beech, chestnut and oak-hornbeam forests complexes (resemblance ca 35.8%), among common species: Mycterodus ovifrons Put., Lepyronia coleoptrata (L.), Philaronia petrovi (Grig.), Centrotus cornutus (L.), Ledra aurita (L.), Evacanthus acuminatus (F.), Fagocyba cruenta (H.-S.), Speudotettix subfus-culus (Fall.), Jassargus prometheus Gnezd., etc. Oak-hornbeam and chestnut forests complexes are more close one to another owing to presence of following species: Issus pospisili Dlab., Oncopsis carpini (J. Shlb.), Anaceratagallia aciculata (Horv.), Acericerus heydeni (Kbm.), Ribautiana tenerrima (H.-S.), Eupteryx praestabilis Logv., Allygidius alanensis Gnezd., Thamnotettix dilutior (Kbm.) etc. Forest, alpine and subalpine complexes (Cluster C, resemblance ca 19.5%), are brought together by Philaronia petrovi (Grig.), Arboridia parvula (Boh.), Balclutha punctata (F.), Cicadula quadrinotata (F.), Errastunus ocellaris (Fall.), etc. Flood-lands complex joins the above mentioned complexes (Cluster D, resemblance ca 14%), however occupy a distinct position owing to a considerable number of stenotope species.
Submediterranean and steppe meadow complexes form Cluster E, resemblance ca 52.5%), among common species: Hyalesthes obsoletus Sign., Anakelisia perspicillata (Boh.), Agalmatium bilobum (Fieb.), Scorlupella montana (Becker), Cicadatra hyalina (F.), Eupelix cuspidata (F.), Doratura concors Horv., Allygidius mayri (Kbm.), Turrutus socialis (Flor), etc. In this case closeness of the above mentioned complexes may be explained by appreciable transformation of submediterranean forests under the anthropogenic influence, which is evinced in a considerable reduction of tree layer and an increase of the role of meadow plant association. Solonez-solonchak complex with steppe meadow and submediterranean complexes form Cluster F (resemblance ca 24%). All three complexes join by Toya propinqua (Fieb.), Austroagallia sinuata (M.et R.), Goniagnatus brevis (H.-S.), Psammotettix confinis (Dhlb.), etc. Steppe meadow, herb-bunch-grass steppe, solonez-solonchak and submediterranean complexes form Cluster G (resemblance ca 18%), owing to presence of Laodelphax striatellus (Fall.), Artianus manderstjernii (Kbm.), Jassargus repletus (Fieb.).
Subalpine open woodland and crook-stem forests complex occupies a distinct position with respect to other complexes owing to the small number of species, a relatively large portion of them being stenotopic ones.
I am sincerely grateful to A.F. Emeljanov, my superviser, B.A. Korotyaev, D.Yu. Tishechkin, V.I. Shchurov, who gave the material for investigation; I.S. Plotnikov for his help with the comparison of faunal complexes; T.N. Popova, T.V. Egorova, N.N. Tsvelev, N.N. Imkhanitskaya, G.L. Kudryashova, N.N. Portenier, L.S. Krasovskaya, A.A. Korobkov (Botanical Institute of RAS), who determined all host plants.
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