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The phylogeny and classification of the phylum Cephalorhyncha

A.V. Adrianov & V.V. Malakhov

Abstract. The phylum Cephalorhyncha is a taxon including headproboscis worms: Priapulida, Loricifera, Kinorhyncha, Nematomorpha. The body of all Cephalorchyncha is divided into proboscis (= introvert) and trunk. The introvert is capable of invaginating into the trunk and is subdivided into the mouth cone, central part with sensory-locomotory scalids, and neck region. The central nervous system consists of nerve ring located in the introvert at the base of mouth cone, and ventral cord. The cephalorhynch worms of Middle Cambrian Burdgess Shale fauna are reviewed. Ancalagon and Fieldia are the most primitive cephalorhynchs. Their proboscis is not able to invaginate completely. Ancalagon and Fieldia could be included into a separate subphylum Protocephalorhyncha. Another subphylum, Eucephalorhyncha, is characterized by the introvert being able to invaginate into the trunk. Subphylum Eucephalorhyncha includes the classes Louisellida (MiddleCambrian only), Priapulida (with Middle Cambrian Ottoia and Selkirkia, Carboniferous Priapulites and several recent genera), Loricifera (considered to be neotenic group), Kinorhyncha, and Nematomorpha, the most advanced group, where only larvae retain the structure of headproboscis worm. Diagnoses of the phylum Cephalorhyncha, new subphyla Protocephalorhyncha and Eucephalorhyncha, and all classes and orders of extinct and extant cephalorhynchs are presented.

Zoosystematica Rossica, 1994, 3(2): 181–201  ▪  Опубликовано в печати 1 августа 1995 г.



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