The interspecific relationships of Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) and Southern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialoides) (Aves: Procellariiformes)

A.M. Sokolov

Abstract. So far the relationship between Fulmar and Southern Fulmar has been studied insufficiently. Contrary to the widespread theory (Voous, 1949), the author assumens that Southern Fulmar descended from the ancient fulmars in South Pacific. The data on the morphology of Southern Fulmar and two Fulmar subspecies are used as the basis for this study. Bill length and width in Pacific and Atlantic Fulmar and in other Procellariiformes (one specimen from each genus) were examined. The structure of jaw apparatus muscles, especially m. adductor externus profunda, pars caudalis (Aec), gives evidence for the conclusion that in Pacific Fulmar (F. glacialis rotgersii) this structure is more archaic. The aponeurotic construction of Aec in F. g. rodgersii is similar to that in Albatroses and Petrels, the most ancient birds in Procellariiformes. Paleontological data confirm this conclusion. Comparison of paleontological, paleoclimatic and paleogeographical data allows approximate origination time of Southern Fulmar in South Pacific to be determined: late Miocene – early Pliocene. Geographical isolation of two Fulmar subspecies occurred in late Pliocene.

Zoosystematica Rossica, 1995, 4(1): 183–200  ▪  Published in print 29 March 1996


  

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