Three new species, two new genera, and new family Biphragmosagittidae (Сhaetognatha) from Southwest Pacific Ocean

A.P. Kassatkina

Abstract. Resuming published and own data, a revision of classification of Chaetognatha is presented. The family Sagittidae Claus & Grobben, 1905 is given a rank of subclass, Sagittiones, characterised, in particular, by the presence of two pairs of sac-like gelatinous structures or two pairs of fins. Besides the order Aphragmophora Tokioka, 1965, it contains the new order Biphragmosagittiformes ord. nov., which is a unique group of Chaetognatha with an unusual combination of morphological characters: the transverse muscles present in both the trunk and the tail sections of the body; the seminal vesicles simple, without internal complex compartments; the presence of two pairs of lateral fins. The only family assigned to the new order, Biphragmosagittidae fam. nov., contains two genera. Diagnoses of the two new genera, Biphragmosagitta gen. nov. (type species B. tarasovi sp. nov. and B. angusticephala sp. nov.) and Biphragmofastigata gen. nov. (type species B. fastigata sp. nov.), detailed descriptions and pictures of the three new species are presented.
Key words: classification, Сhaetognatha, Eukrohniones, Sagittiones, Biphragmosagittiformes, Biphragmosagittidae, new subclasses, new order, new family, new genera, new species

Zoosystematica Rossica, 2011, 20(1): 161-173  ▪  Published in print 28 July 2011

Open full article  


Beauchamp, P., de. 1960. Classe des chetognathes (Chaetognatha). In: Grassé, P. (Ed.) Traité de Zoologie, 5(2): 1500–20. Masson, Paris.

Beraneck, E. 1895. Les Chaetognathes de la Baie d’Amboine. Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 3(1): 1–137.

Bieri, R. 1974. First record of the chaetognath genus Krohnittella in the Pacific and description of a new species. Wasmann Journal of Biology. 32: 297–301.

Bowman, T. E. & Bieri, R. 1989. Paraspadella anops, new species, from Sagittarius cave Grand Bahama Island, the second troglobitic chaetognath. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 102: 586–589.

Bush, W. 1851. Beobachtungen über Anatomieund Entwiklung einiger wirbellosen Seethiere. A. Hirschwald, Berlin. 143 p.

Casanova, J.-P. 1985. Description de l”appareil genital primitive du genere Heterokrohnia et nouvelle classification des Chaetognathes. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences de Paris, Série 3, 301(8): 397–399.

Casanova, J.-P. 1986. Archeterokrohnia rubra n. gen., n. sp., noveau Chaetognathe abyssal de l’Atlantigue nord-africain: description systematique, hypothes phylogenetique. Bulletin du Musee d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris, Série 4, 8A(1): 185–194.

Casanova, J.-P. & Duvert, M. 2002. Comparative studies and evolution of muscles in chaetognaths. Marine Biology, 141: 925–938.

Chen, J.-Y & Huang, D.-Y. 2002. A possible Lower Cambrian chaetognath (arrow worm). Science, 298: 187.

Dallot, S. & Ibanes, F. 1972. Etude, preliminaire de la morphologie et de l‘evolucion chez les Chaetognathes comparaison de trios techniques multivariable: classification automatique, classification cladistique et analyse des coordonnees principales. Investigacion Pesquera, 36(1): 31–41.

Doncaster, L. 1902. On the development of Sagitta with notes on the anatomy of the adult. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 46: 351–398.

Elpat’evskiy, V.S. [Elpatiewsky, W.S.] 1910. Die Entwiklungsgeschichte der Genitalprodukte bei Sagitta. I. Die Entwiklung der Eier. Biologicheskiy Zhurnal, 1(4): 1–10.

Elpat’evskiy, V.S. [Elpatiewsky, W.S.] 1913. Origin of the ovum and embryological development of Sagitta. Part 1: Origin of the ovum. Izvestiya Obschestva Lubiteley Estestvoznanya, Antropology, Etnography, 126(1): 1–69. (In Russian).

Elpat’evskiy, V.S. [Elpatiewsky, W.S.] 1914. Origin of the ovum and embryological development of Sagitta. Part 2: Embryological development. Izvestye Obschestva Lubiteley Estestvoznanya, Antropology, Etnography, 126(2): 1–48. (In Russian).

Fedonkin, M.A.2003. The origin of the Metazoa in the light of the Proterozoic fossil record. Paleontological Research, 7(1): 9–41.

Filatova, Z.A. 1951. Class Chaetognatha. In: Zenkevich, L.A. (Ed.) Rukovodstvo po zoology [Manual in Zoology], 3(2): 592–608. Sovetskaya nauka, Moscow. (In Russian).

Fowler, G.H. 1906. The Сhaetognatha of the Siboga expedition. Siboga Exp. Monogr. Leiden. 21: 1–86.

Ghirardelli, E. 1968. Some aspects of the biology of the Сhaetognaths. Advances in Marine Biology, 6: 271–375.

Hyman, LH. 1959. The invertebrates, smaller coelomate groups, 5. McGraw-Hill, New York. 71 p.

Hu, S.X. 2005. Taphonomy and palaeoecology of the Early Cambrian Chengjiang biota from Eastern Yunnan, China. Berliner Paläobiologische Abhandlungen,7:1–197.

Jennings, R.M., Bucklin, A. & Pierrot-Bults, A. 2010. Barcoding of Arrow Worms (Phylum Chaetognatha) from Three Oceans: Genetic Diversity and Evolution within an Enigmatic Phylum. PLoS ONE, 5(4): e9949.

Kapp, H. 1991.Сhaetognatha: morphology and anatomy. In: Bone, Q., Kapp, H. & Pierrot-Bults, A.C. (Eds). The biology of Chaetognaths: 1–44. Oxford Scientific Publishers.

Kassatkina, A.P. 1971. New neritic species of Chaetognaths from the Posjiet Bay, the Sea of Japan. Fauna and Flora of the Posjiet Bay, the Sea of Japan. Issledovaniye fauny morey, 8 (16): 265–294. Zoological Institute, Leningrad. (In Russian).

Kassatkina, A.P. 1980. A new genus Tokiokaispadella and its position in the system of Chaetognatha. Zoologicheskiy Journal, 59(8): 1257–1260.

Kassatkina, A.P. 1982. Shchetinkochelyustnyye morey SSSR I sopredel’nykh vod [Chaetognaths of the seas of USSR and adjacent waters]. Nauka, Leningrad. 136 p. (In Russian).

Kassatkina, A.P. 1995. Mass abnormal in plankton of Far-Eastern Seas and an adjacent water of the Pacific Ocean. Doklady Akademii Nauk, 345(6): 845–848.

Kassatkina, A.P. 1998. A new genus Pseudoeukrohnia of the family Eukrohniidae (Chaetognatha). Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 24(6): 359–363.

Kassatkina, A.P. 2001. On changes in the Chaetognaths fauna of the western Bering Sea and the northwestern Pacific Ocean. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 27(1): 27–33.

Kasatkina, A.P. 2002. New species of arrowworms (Pseudoeukrohnia, Chaetognatha) from the Western Bering Sea and Northwestern Pacific, Biologiya Morya, 28 (2): 93–101.

Kassatkina, A.P. 2003. New genera and species of the order Phragmophora (Chaetognatha). Russian Journal of Marine Biology. 29(1): 13–22.

Kassatkina, A.P. 2006. The find of the Sagittidae new species without fins from the north-west part of the Japan Sea. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 32 (6): 353–359.

Kassatkina, A.P. & Stolyarova, M.V. 2006. Two new genera (Paraeukrohnia and Praeukrohnia) and four new species of arrowworms (Chaetognatha) from the southwestern Bering Sea. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 32(3): 150–156.

Kassatkina, A.P. & Stolyarova, M.V. 2008. Histological examination of the chaetognathan morphological structure in the region of a supposed trunk-tail septum. Zoosystematica Rossica, 17(2): 61–70.

Kasatkina, A.P. & Stolyarova, M.V. 2010. Morphologiya, taksonomiya i ekologiya Chaetognatha Yaponskogo morya i sopredel’nykh vod [Morphology, taxonomy, and ecology of Chaetognatha of the Sea of Japan and adjacent regions]. Dalnauka, Vladivostok. 250 p. (In Russian).

Kotori, M. 1979. The biology of Chaetognatha in the Bering Sea and the northwestern North Pacifi c Ocean, with emphasis on Sagitta elegans Verrill (review). Bulletin of Plankton Society of Japan, 26: 25–39.

Krohn, A. 1853. Nachträgliche Bemerkungen über den Bau der Gattung Sagitta nebst der Beschreibung einer neuen Arten. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 19(1): 1–286.

Kuhl, W. 1938. Chaetognatha. In: Bronns Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreiches, 4, 2(1): 1–226. Leipzig.

Langerhans, P. 1880. Die Wurmfauna von Madeira. Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche (Zoologie), 34: 1–136.

Michael, E.L. 1911. Classification and vertical distribution of the Chaetognathen of the S. Diego Region. University of California Publications in Zoology, 8(3): 21–186.

Molchanov, L.A. 1907. Ein Beitrag zur Klassification der Chaetog­nathen. Zoologischer Anzeiger Leipzig, 31: 220–222.

Papillon D., Perez Y., Caubit, X., Parco, Y. le. 2004. Identification of Chaetognaths as Protostomes is supported by the analysis of their mitochondrial genome. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 21 (11): 2122–2129.

Papillon D., Perez Y., Caubit, X. & Le Parco, Y. 2006. Systematics of Chaetognatha under the light of molecular data, using duplicated ribosomal 18S DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution, 38(3): 621–634.

Pierrot-Bults, A.C. 2004. Chaetognatha. In: Grzimek, B. et al. (Eds), Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2nd edition, vol. 2, Protosomes. Thomson/Gale, Detroit.

Ritter-Záhony, R. 1911. Revision der Chaetognathen. Deutsche Südpolar-Expedition, 13: 1–71.

Salvini-Plawen, L. von. 1986. Systematic notes on Spadella and on the Chaetognatha in general. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 24(2): 122–128.

Shram, F.R. 1973. Pseudocoelomates and nemertine from the Illinois Pennsilvanian. Journal of Paleontology, 47: 985–989.

Szaniawski, H. 2005. Cambrian chaetognaths recognized in Burgess Shale fossils. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica,50:1–8.

Telford, M.J. & Holland, P.W.H. 1993. The phylogenetic affinities of the chaetognaths: a molecular analysis. MolecularBiology and Evolution, 10(3): 660–676.

Telford, M.J. & Holland, P.W.H. 1997. Evolution of 28S ribosomal DNA in chaetognaths: duplicate genes and molecular phylogeny. Journal of MolecularEvolution, 44: 135–144.

Thuesen, E.V. & Numachi, K. & Nemoto, T. 1993. Genetic variation in the planktonic Chaetognaths Parasagitta elegans and Eukrohnia hamata. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 101: 243–251.

Tokioka, T. 1965a. The taxonomical outline of Chaetognatha. Publications of Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 12(5): 335–357.

Tokioka, T. 1965b. Supplementary notes on the systematic of Chaetognatha. Publications of Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 13(3): 231–242.

Walcott, C.D. 1911. Middle Cambrian annelids. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 57(2): 109–144.

Volume, Year:
Vol. 28. 2019
Vol. 27. 2018
Vol. 26. 2017
Vol. 25. 2016
Vol. 24. 2015
Vol. 23. 2014
Vol. 22. 2013
Vol. 21. 2012
Vol. 20. 2011
Vol. 19. 2010
Vol. 18. 2009
Vol. 17. 2008
Vol. 16. 2007
Vol. 15. 2006
Vol. 14. 2005
Vol. 13. 2004
Vol. 12. 2003
Vol. 11. 2002
Vol. 10. 2001
Vol. 9. 2000
Vol. 8. 1999
Vol. 7. 1998
Vol. 6. 1997
Vol. 5. 1996
Vol. 4. 1995
Vol. 3. 1994
Vol. 2. 1993
Vol. 1. 1992
Suppl. 2. 2018